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Psychology Prompt Reply to each Peer

  • Controversy w/ ADHD Diagnosis Discussion 1 Reply Mayda:

The discussion questions posed this week focus on the current diagnosis rate of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Arguably, it would seem that the rates of this disorder have increased dramatically in recent years. In fact, current evidence indicates that ADHD is the number one mental health disorder diagnosed in children (Poulton et al., 2016). This would seem to suggest that there may be an overdiagnosis of the health condition. However, scholars reviewing the diagnosis rates of ADHD argue that there are other factors contributing to such a large number of children being diagnosed with this condition (Conrad & Bergey, 2014).

According to Conrad and Bergey (2014), the diagnosis of ADHD was first medicalized in the United States in the 1960s. When this occurred, medical providers had clear diagnostic criteria for identifying children with the disorder and providing treatment. Conrad and Bergey go on to note that when looking at other countries and their treatment of ADHD, it has only been within the last two decades that ADHD has been medicalized. What has been observed in countries where the disorder has been medicalized is a concomitant increase in the number of cases diagnosed (Conrad & Bergey, 2014). Based on this assessment of the data, it would seem that changes in the way that the disorder is identified and treated has provided some basis for what appears to be an explosion in the number of children with this disorder.

Underdiagnosis of ADHD is a problem for many different reasons. Children that have undiagnosed ADHD are more likely to engage in at-risk behaviors that may significantly impact their physical and mental health across the lifespan (Wang et al., 2017). One example is with regard to substance use disorders. Adolescents with ADHD that do not receive adequate treatment will often engage in substance use (alcohol or illicit drugs) in an effort to help them cope with the symptoms of their disorder (Wang et al., 2017). While overdiagnosis carries with it the potential to provide unneeded treatment, underdiagnosis can mean the difference between the ability of the child to maintain health and well-being and the inability to control a disorder that can be effectively treated.

References

Conrad, P., & Bergey, M. R. (2014). The impending globalization of ADHD: Notes on the expansion and growth of a medicalized disorder. Social Science & Medicine, 122, 31-43. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.10.019

Poulton, A. S., Bui, Q., Melzer, E., & Evans, R. (2016). Stimulant medication effects on growth and bone age in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A prospective cohort study. International Clinical Psychopharmacology, 31(2), 93-99. doi: 10.1097/YIC.0000000000000109

Wang, P., Zhang, X., Fu, T., Li, S., Li, B., Xue, W.,…Zhu, F. (2017). Differentiating physiochemical properties between addictive and nonaddictive ADHD drugs revealed by molecular dynamics stimulation studies. ACS Chemical Neuroscience, 8, 1416-1428. doi: 10.1021/acschemneuro.7b00173

  • Controversy w/ ADHD Diagnosis Discussion 1 Reply Georgina:

Considerable controversy has risen in recent years over the increased diagnosis of children with ADHD (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder). What is your opinion about the reason why diagnosis for ADHD has risen in recent decades?

I think it could be linked to the types of food women eat when they are pregnant. My son was diagnosed with ADHD when he was 4 years old, but I cannot recall what I was eating at the time I was pregnant. Other people said eating too much sugar. My opinion is that when kids are very young, they need to play outside and use all their energy. Children in Africa don’t have ADHD because parents will let their kids chase each other outside. So, at the end of the day they are tired of running around. Now days it is high because they don’t use their energy the way they are supposed to, they get bored easily. All they can do is to sit on the sofa and play games, they never do anything to release their energy.

I agreed with individuals who claim that it largely misdiagnosed in children today. Some people don’t know to handle children, every child will throw some tantrum it does mean have ADHD. I see so many people complaining about a baby that has a bad temper and likes to fight, but the babies learn to defend themselves that way it is our nature.

Not having true information and background, and mediating kids that should not be on medication.This could lead to a reduced growth in a child, how they will cope with their emotions later in life as an adult.I do believe there are times when medication is needed, but a lot of times it should be temporary.Disciplining a child from very young and demanding them to learn right from wrong is a better way to help them, in my opinion.

According to another study, “children whose mothers felt they were sugar-sensitive were given aspartame as a substitute for sugar. Half the mothers were told their children were given sugar, half that their children were given aspartame. The mothers who thought their children had received sugar rated them as more hyperactive than the other children and were more critical of their behavior” (Child Development Institute, 2019).

References

Child Development Institute, L. (2019). ADHD CAUSES. Retrieved from child development info: https://childdevelopmentinfo.com

  • Reasons for Attraction Discussion 2 Reply Joni ( Teacher):

Hello,

Thanks for sharing these thoughts about attraction. Some people share that it really depends on if they are talking about physical attraction, personality, or even interests and the like. Taking a look at this side of the argument, do you still hold true to your original thoughts? Why or why not?

Joni

  • Reasons for Attraction Discussion 2 Reply Mayda:

Hi,

Well done on your post this week. In your response you noted that you believe that having diverse or opposing opinions can limit or enhance relationships. I agree that this is indeed a double-edged sword and it seems that there are other factors that may play a role in determining how differences impact a relationship. Tsai, Wu, Chang, and Chen (2018) consider this issue noting that when looking at similarities and differences in relationships, it is important to recognize that personalities, traits, demographics, social, and economic factors can all play into how individuals interact with each other. These authors go on to argue that while efforts are continually made to determine if opposites do indeed attract, what is perhaps more important to consider are how various differences influence behavior within a relationship. What this suggests to me is that the debate over opposites attracting is much more complex than just a simple assessment of similarities and differences that may spark controversy.

References

Tsai, M., Lin, C., Chang, L., & Chen, H. (2018). Humor styles in marriage: How similar are husband and wife. Psychological Reports, 122(6), 2331-2347. doi: 10.1177/0033294118805008 on.

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