CFS 153 Research Methods in Child Family science HW

CFS 153 Research Methods in Child Family science HW.

I’m working on a Psychology question and need guidance to help me study.

I need help doing an assignment for my Child Family Science class on research methods. the assignment consists on 5 different studies and having to plug them into the right study design. the study designs are prevalence design, intervention design which pertains quasi experiment and randomized control group, correlation design and exploratory design.

CFS 153 – Research Methods

Spring 2020

Assignment #1 – Research Designs (Preschool)

Name: _________________

Please type your answers to the following questions on this page, or on a separate page with the questions numbered. Use the attached research abstracts to do so.

  1. Exploratory Design
    1. Which of the attached research abstracts reports a study using an EXPLORATORY design?
    2. Which exploratory design was used?
    3. What was the scientist trying to get insight about?
    4. Critique the quality of this research using at least two criteria.
  2. Prevalence Design
    1. Which of the attached research abstracts reports a study using a PREVALENCE design?
    2. Which prevalence design was used?
    3. What was the subject that the scientist was attempting to determine the prevalence of?
    4. What is the prevalence identified in the study? The 90% confidence interval around that estimate?
  3. Correlational Design
    1. Which of the abstracts reports a study using a CORRELATIONAL design?
    2. What is the time orientation of the study?
    3. What potential relationship was investigated? How sure can we be that the relationship is real (not a fluke or a coincidence)?
    4. Evaluate whether the study establishes causation in this relationship.
  4. Intervention Design: Quasi-Experiment
    1. Which of the abstracts reports a study using a QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL design?
    2. Which quasi-experimental design was used? Diagram it.
    3. What is the time orientation of the study?
    4. Is the intervention group statistically significantly different from the comparison group? Summarize the difference in your own words.
  5. Intervention Design: Randomized Controlled Trial
    1. Which of the abstracts reports a study using a RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL?
    2. What intervention is being studied?
    3. Briefly describe the main result. Is it statistically significant?

STUDY A

Campbell, F., Conti, G., Heckman, J.J., Moon, S.H., Pinto, R., Pungello, E. & Pan, Y. (2014).

Early Childhood Investments Substantially Boost Adult Health, Science, 343, 1478-1485

BACKGROUND: High quality early childhood programs are known to have benefits for reducing crime, raising earnings, and promoting education. Much less is known about its relationship to adult health.

SAMPLE: Participants were economically disadvantaged, high-risk children, n=111, born 1972 through 1977 near Chapel Hill, North Carolina. Most were Black (98%) and living in families headed by a single mother (83%) with a low level of education.

METHODS: Participants were randomly assigned to intervention (n=57) or control (n=54). The intervention was a full-time high-quality child care program, birth through age 5, along with two meals a day at the child care center, and access to primary pediatric health care. This is called the Carolina Abecedarian Project (ABC). After the intervention, participants were followed up at ages 12, 15, 30, and finally in the mid-30s. At the final follow-up, participants were subjected to a complete physical exam conducted by a physician who was blind to treatment status, and blood tests designed to identify those at risk for heart disease and diabetes.

RESULTS: Participants who received the preschool intervention have significantly lower prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in their mid-30s. These differences are especially pronounced for men. For instance, 25% of men in the control group are affected by metabolic syndrome, while none of those in the treatment group are (p=.007).

STUDY B

Sabol, T.J., & Hoyt, L.T. (2017). The long arm of childhood: Preschool associations with adolescent health. Developmental Psychology, 53, 752-763

BACKGROUND: We know that childhood experiences are related to a wide range of outcomes later in life. We know that preschool for low-income children has large effects on cognitive, social, and economic outcomes later. But we don’t know about the association between preschool in early childhood and health later in life.

SAMPLE: The National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) studied how infants were cared for. Most were White (82%) or African American (12%). One-third of the households were considered low-income. The original sample included 1364 children By age 15, only 744 remained in the sample.

METHODS: Infants were assessed at 1, 6, 15, 24, 36 for demographics and child characteristics related to behavior and health. Preschool participation was measured at 54 months by maternal report. Preschool settings were evaluated by classroom observations, teacher surveys, and center director surveys. Health at age 15 was assessed by physiological measures in a lab, including blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), and cortisol level.

RESULTS: Preschool care at 54 months (compared to parent care) was associated with lower systolic blood pressure (p<.05) and lower diastolic blood pressure (p<.05) during adolescence. These relationships existed after controlling for gender, race, behavior problems, cognitive measures, health issues, child’s weight, maternal sensitivity, and household income before 54 months.

STUDY C

Puskas, T. (2017). Picking up the threads. Languaging in a Swedish mainstream preschool.

Early Years, 37, 313-325

BACKGROUND: In Sweden, 1 in 5 children learns Swedish as a second language. Given that language is the mechanism by which experience becomes knowledge, those children need to simultaneously learn the new language, and have meaningful opportunities for learning. The goal of this study is to enhance understanding of how monolingual teachers encourage and enhance verbal communication with emergent bilingual preschool children in a Swedish mainstream school.

SAMPLE: One preschool group, which consisted of two teachers and twelve children aged three to five years. Two children came from monolingual Swedish homes, three came from bilanguage homes, and seven spoke a language other than Swedish and were learning Swedish in preschool.

METHODS: Over the course of a month, the researcher spent 16 days in the preschool classroom as a participant observer. Informal discussions with teachers and children. Used hand-held video camera to record verbal interactions between teacher and emergent bilingual children (17 hours of recordings).

RESULTS: Several scaffolding strategies are identified such as guessing, qualified guessing, interactive scaffolding and co-construction of meaning. The analysis shows that successful languaging assumes a high level of trust between the children and their teachers and that it is essential that the teachers can identify each child’s zone of proximal development.

STUDY D

Reynold, A. J., Ou, S.R., & Temple, J.A. (2018). A multicomponent preschool to third grade preventive intervention and educational attainment at 35 years of age. JAMA Pediatrics, 172,247-256

BACKGROUND: It is known that early childhood interventions help children do better in elementary school, but do they also contribute to educational attainment into adulthood? The objective of the current study is to examine whether a large-scale preschool program improves educational attainment at midlife.

SAMPLE: The current research follows up on the Chicago Longitudinal Study, conducted in the 1980s. The intervention was provided to 1,539 low-income minority children born in 1979 or 1980 who grew up in high-poverty neighborhoods in Chicago, Illinois. These children were provided with full-time preschool as well as comprehensive social services (home visits, nutrition education, subsidized meals, health screening, etc.) through the third grade. They were compared to a group of 550 children who were selected from full-time kindergarten classes in public schools with equivalent poverty rates to the participating schools. A total of 1,398 intervention participants and 495 comparison participants from the original sample had data on educational attainment. Retention rate was 91% for the intervention group, and 90% for the comparison group.

METHODS: Follow-up was conducted when the participants were, on average, 35 years old. High school completion information about participants was pulled from the Illinois Shared Enrollment and Graduation Consortium. College records of participants were identified in the National Student Clearinghouse, which keeps records of enrollment and degrees earned at all institutions of higher learning in the US.

RESULTS: Participants in the intervention were compared to the comparison group on several educational outcomes.

Outcome

Intervention (n=904)

Comparison (n=494)

Drop out by 16 years of age

11.2%

13.9%

On-time high school graduation**

42.1%

34.3%

High school completion**

86.9%

80.7%

College attendance**

61.2%

53.1%

Associates degree or higher**

15.7%

10.7%

Bachelor’s degree or higher

11.0%

7.8%

Master’s degree or higher**

4.2%

1.5%

** p<.01


STUDY E

Laughlin, L. (2013). Who’s minding the kids? Child care arrangements: Spring 2011. Current Population Reports, P70-135. US Census Bureau, Washington DC.

https://www.census.gov/prod/2013pubs/p70-135.pdf

BACKGROUND: Parents in the labor force must choose the type of care to provide for their children while they work. Child care arrangements and their cost are significant issues for parents, employers, policy-makers, and anyone else interested in children. This report identifies the prevalence of regular care in an organized care facility (a daycare or preschool) in the spring of 2011.

SAMPLE: The 2011 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) by the US Census Bureau is a nationally representative sample of the civilian population living in the US. Included in this analysis are the 20,404 children under 5 years of age.

METHODS: Telephone interviews with parents. Parents were asked if the child has a regular children care arrangement when the reference parents was working or in school. Those who said yes were classified as using relative care or non-relative care.

RESULTS:

CFS 153 Research Methods in Child Family science HW

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