Gerontology Short Answer Questions

Gerontology Short Answer Questions.

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Hello, below I have attached my assignment. All together it is (2) questions and I only need about 1 page and 1/2 pages. 2/3 page for each questions. Must be in APA format. I have attached material that could be very useful. Be sure to have a reference page and to cite everything properly.

Module 7: Assignment Six

Copy the Question before answering it (Question-Answer)

Q1- Compare and contrast the various types of housing patterns for older adults. What are the differences or similarities, and how do they relate to the physical fitness of the elderly? Answer all parts of the question. (10 points

Q2- Conduct a cross-cultural study to compare the most popular lving arrangement for the elderly in America and the most popular living arrangements in Asian culture (specify which Asian culture- there are too many). Provide references. (10 points)


Did the student address the questions completely and clearly?

Did the question provide appropriate research citations (if asked for in the question)?

Did writing errors make it difficult for the instructor to understand the responses?


Module Summary

Similar to other aspects of older adults’ lives, there is not one pattern but rather tremendous heterogeneity in living arrangements. Elders’ decisions about where they live are influenced by many factors—their health status, functional ability, geographic location, activity interests, finances, and families and friends. The vast majority wants to remain in their own homes, but others are eager to move to a smaller apartment or condo in a retirement community, or to know that someone will be watching out for them in an assisted living facility. Few initially choose to live in a skilled nursing facility, but for some, this allows them to receive the care they need and is the best option. Regardless of where elders live, their physical (or built) and social environments can make a profound difference in their physical and mental health as well as their sense of well-being, especially since one’s home tends to be central to self-identity (Glass & Skinner, 2013). No environment is inherently good or bad. What matters in terms of well-being is the extent to which the environment fits with one’s physical, cognitive, and emotional needs and allows a person to maintain a degree of control over their surroundings.


Elderly Housing – Retirement and Independent Living Communities

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A Day in the Life at an Assisted Living Community

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In this module, students will be able to

  • Outline the person–environment theories for successful aging
  • Summarize the types of living arrangements available to elders
  • Evaluate planned residential options available to older persons
  • Outline health services that help elders remain in their communities

Module 7: Lecture Materials– Chapter 11 Living Arrangements and Social Interactions

Please read Chapter Eleven

This chapter presents ways in which environmental factors affect the physical and psychological well-being of older people, and the importance of achieving P–E congruence in living situations. Perhaps the most important lesson to be gained from this discussion is that a given environment is not inherently good or bad. Some environments are more conducive for achieving active aging among some people, whereas other older adults need an entirely different set of features. Most P–E models point to the necessity of examining each older person’s specific needs, preferences, and abilities and designing environments that can flexibly respond to these differences. To the degree that environmental press can be reduced to accommodate changing levels of competence and needs, the aging person can function more effectively and experience enhanced well-being. It is also essential to take account of the meaning of home as a source of identity and control. This chapter presented examples of how both the built/physical and social environment can be modified to achieve P–E fit and affect older people’s well-being and active aging. However, with declining health and financial resources, the life-space of many older adults becomes more constricted, sometimes resulting in social isolation.

Older Adults Living in Urban and Suburban Areas

Most older adults live in urban and suburban areas, with those in rural and suburban areas often facing the most difficulty remaining in their homes because of lack of public transportation and accessible services. In urban areas, the neighborhood takes on greater significance as a source of social interactions, health and social services, and access to small businesses. Neighbors represent a central component of older people’s social and emotional network, especially when family is unavailable. Naturally occurring retirement communities are becoming more common in urban areas, but as residents age in place, there is a need for supportive services to ensure P–E fit. Elders in urban areas may become isolated in their homes if they are fearful of crime; however, their fear tends to be much greater than the actual incidence of crime. Older people experience far lower rates than younger people for violent crimes and somewhat lower rates for other types of crime. The potential danger of injury and long-term disability, as well as the fear of economic loss, may contribute to this incongruence between elders’ actual victimization rates and their relatively high levels of fear of crime. Contrary to what we may assume about elders moving to sunny climates, older people are less likely to move to a totally new area than are younger families. But they are more likely to move to a different type of housing geographically close by within the same community. When they do relocate, they often experience feelings of loss and grief over giving up a longtime home and their sense of place. Regardless of the type of living situation, being able to have some control over relocation decisions is paramount.

Accommodation Alternatives for Older Adults

The vast majority of older adults live in independent housing—and want to continue to do so. But they often face high maintenance and utility costs in homes that are older and in poorer condition than those of younger homeowners and may become isolated in their homes if their functional ability declines. Fortunately, there are growing numbers of choices in living environments, largely due to innovations in age-friendly communities and aging in place for those who want to stay in their own homes or apartments. More cohousing and intentional communities, as well as virtual communities such as villages that do not require relocating but provide services to a network of elders for a small annual fee, are emerging as groups of older adults choose to live near people who share their interests and lifestyle, but where they can age in community. Aging in place becomes an even more viable option as more homes are built according to the principles of universal design. Homes with age-friendly home design—including bedroom, bath, and kitchen facilities on the entry floor, easy-to-operate mechanical and electronic devices, and temperature controls for each area of the home—can create a supportive environment for aging. However, those such as smart homes that depend on technology will be limited to those who can afford them. For older adults who can no longer remain in an independent housing, there are a growing number of residential living situations. Continuing care retirement communities (CCRCs) provide choices in housing and long-term services and supports, including skilled nursing care, as aging residents’ needs for assistance change, but these serve only a small proportion of financially secure seniors. Assisted living and adult family homes are rapidly becoming a cost-effective option to nursing homes for older people who need help with ADLs but not necessarily 24-hour care. Many of these home and community-based services provide greater autonomy and privacy, and less direct supervision, than nursing homes. Home care is now the fastest-growing component of personal health care expenditures. It allows older people to age in place while bringing services such as skilled nursing care and rehabilitation services (under Medicare) and personal assistance in the home for those who are either Medicaid-eligible or can afford private home care. Adult day care or adult day health care, as both a social and rehabilitative model, provides social and health care opportunities for frail older people who are living at home alone or with a family caregiver.

Older Adults Living in Skilled Nursing Facilities

Less than 4 percent of older adults—typically the oldest-old—live in skilled nursing facilities, but for some elders and their families, this is the best living option. And skilled nursing facilities increasingly seek to initiate organizational culture change to create more homelike environments by changing both the decision-making structure and the living arrangements to promote resident-centered care.

Limited Housing Options for Low-Income and Marginalized Elders

Funding for low-income housing for older adults has always been limited, but even more so in recent years. And such housing typically does not offer enough services for residents to “age in place,” although there is some funding now for service-enriched housing. In recent years, the number of homeless adults ages 55 and older has been growing. They often face chronic medical, psychiatric, and cognitive disorders that go unattended because of inadequate access to health services. As a result, homeless elders grow physiologically old more rapidly and have a shorter life expectancy than do their more stable peers. Another concern is increased numbers of elders in prisons, mostly because many have aged in place. By age 55, many of these prisoners have chronic diseases and disabilities found in chronologically older adults in the community. The escalating costs of care for this population, as well as the incongruence between prison environments and the needs of frail older persons, have stimulated discussions about the need for geriatric facilities in prisons, physical accommodations, and even early release. Implications for Policies and Services Health and social service providers need to be informed of the growing options in housing and long-term services and supports and how to effectively use them to support older adults’ aging in place and control over their environment. These professionals must be sensitive to the impact of the home and neighborhood on elders’ well-being, social engagement, and ultimately their quality of life, and how to make modifications to support aging in place. Accordingly, the need for community-based long-term services and supports that allow elders to age in place will grow. Although future cohorts of elders will have more options, these will depend on their financial resources. Adults now in their 30s or early 40s who cannot afford to purchase a home and anticipate renting most of their lives may have fewer housing options in their old age.

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Gerontology Short Answer Questions

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