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Discussion Questions: Describe the different types of lighting available to the security professional, their strengths, weakness, and provide an example of where each should be used. Be specific. Lastly, discuss CPTED-based security countermeasures and factors as they pertain to parking lots and structures. (750 word response and 2 cited references)

Class Forum Notes

  • Lesson Overview
  • This week we will continue with topics regarding the evaluation and selection of lighting as well as CPTED considerations for parking areas.

    Lesson Objectives:

    After completing this lesson, students will be able to:

    • Measure the concepts behind protecting the built environment.
    • Evaluate applications of CPTED in the built environment.
    • Evaluate how to measure the success of CPTED, conduct CPTED surveys and implement CPTED.

    Specific Topics of Discussion:

    In this lesson, we will discuss:

    • Lighting evaluation and selection
    • Securing parking structures and areas

    Key Learning Concepts:

    Key Learning Concept 1

    • Rules of lighting

    Key Learning Concept 2

    • Parking and CCTV
  • Reading and Resources
  • Required Readings

    1. 21st Century Security and CPTED – Chapters 22-24
    2. Literature Review on design terror mitigation for facility managers in public access buildings
    3. Improving community street lighting using CPTED: A case study of three communities in Korea
  • Required resources for your course are provided in a course eReserve. Please click here (, enter your course number in the ‘Search for course eReserves’ box, click Go, and then select the course when it appears below the search box. Information included in LibAnswers ( provides download and print options for offline reading of Library ebooks.
  • Lesson
  • Lighting is a key element in security design. Lighting is also a key element in how people perceive their safety. The more light there is, the more secure and safe we normally feel, especially when outdoors at night, or in a structure such as a parking garage. There are many “rules” for lighting. Lighting that creates shadows in which a person could hide, is an example of a poor application of lighting. Lighting that facilitates good overall security can be a powerful ally.When deciding on lighting needs and solutions the security professional has to examine several factors of a site or space which needs to be illuminated. A proper illumination study provides baseline data on existing lighting levels and identifies possible gaps where improvement may be needed. The illumination study should be a single aspect of an overall security evaluation or assessment. To learn more about illumination standards the Illumination Engineering Society website may be visited at: Another IES-related site which discusses some of the testing metrics may be found at: Other resources which are available include ASIS International publications and standards.Deciding on the type of lighting and related fixtures one must examine the intended use of the space. Parking lot lighting will require different levels of illumination than what may be needed for entry points and sidewalks which may very well dictate types of lighting fixtures and technology utilized. A relatively new technology that is in increasing use is that of LED lighting. LED lighting exhibits low power consumption, good color rendition, and near instant strike times. Of course, available funding will directly impact lighting countermeasure selection.Parking lots and garages can be very scary places, day or night, but especially at night. Parking areas, for purposes of liability, are normally considered extensions of a premise so responsibility for the outcome of crimes committed in these areas normally fall on the organization that owns or leases the area. Thus, having security measures in place in parking areas such as lighting, access control, CCTV, patrols, etc. is important. Parking areas are locations in which personal attacks, rape, robbery and vehicle theft commonly occur. This week’s readings discuss possible solutions and best practices that can be integrated into a security plan or solution that could aid in increased surveillance and reporting of incidents. A lack of emergency reporting stations and a large number of areas of concealment are common deficiencies noted in many parking areas, both surface level and underground.With the advent of networked security systems access control, CCTV systems, lighting and the use of analytics can leverage multiple system’s capabilities. Focused real time coverage of CCTV, spotlighting and intrusion detection can provide advanced warning to security personnel as well as sound alarms in the location of a possible incident providing possible deterrence. Interoperability provides for a cost-effective and attractive means of implementing efficient integrated solutions.

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