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Help me study for my Health & Medical class. I’m stuck and don’t understand.


Please note that each and every assignment has its own word limit.

A diagnostic test is a procedure that detects, analyze, monitor and treat diseases; however, to produce credible data, factors like validity and reliability is important. Therefore, the importance of validity and reliability in research or diagnostic testing is whether the data is accurately detected or measured with reliable instruments. Therefore, assuring the credibility of the test results coming from an evidence-based source, that provided factual data (Celentano & Szklo, 2019). For example, it is crucial that at 6 am every day a researcher will take the measurement of a sample, or the measurement will not be accurate. Therefore, the validity and reliability of the research is the consistency of a reliable instrument, such as an alarm clock ringing at 6 am every day to assure accurate data measurement (Heale & Twycross, 2015).

Validity is the credibility and factuality of research and is categorized into two components, sensitivity, and specificity. Validity relates to sensitivity and specificity in diagnostic testing by confirming and excluding the diseases during a diagnostic test. Sensitivity is the ability of the test to accurately detect who has the disease and specificity is the ability of the test to accurately detect who does not have the disease. For example, a patient came in with flu symptoms and requested a flu test. This requires a reliable tool, such as the rapid influenza diagnostics test to determine if the patient has the flu or not. However, if the flu test batch is faulty, then the result might be defective, such as giving a false negative, which diminishes the credibility of the test (Celentano & Szklo, 2019).

A health screening that is debated against regarding its use is the TB-tuberculosis test, which is a severe infectious disease that affects the lung and is caused by a bacterium called tuberculosis and is transmitted by person-person via cough and sneeze droplets. This test is required for all healthcare professionals and students at the start of the school year. Individuals who came in contact with TB infected personnel, immunosuppressed individuals, HIV-Infected individuals and patients who did organ transplant. There is no age limit or frequency requirement.

The test is a needle with tuberculin injected into the skin of the lower arm and a small bump will appear. TB result is based on the radius of the bump, a positive test means the bump is hard and raised and large in size, meaning the individual is infected with the TB Bactria. The TB vaccine used to be given in various countries, I was given the TB vaccine when I was a baby, however, most countries stop issuing the vaccine and the US does not give the TB vaccine because of the low risk with the mycobacterium tuberculosis. The validity and reliability of the test is faulty because the test can produce false-positive if you were given the TB vaccine. Also, if the US does not issue the vaccine, why do they screen test for the bacteria. What happens when a person from a country with a TB outbreak makes it to America and infects the population? The Americans will not have anything to fight the infection within their body, because they are not vaccinated (Center for Disease Control and Prevention 2016).

Factors that should be considered when recommending a diagnostic test are the cost, (can uninsured individuals afford it) and the discomfort (mammogram that compresses the breast in a machine making it uncomfortable and painful). The availability of the test (location), is the test invasive or noninvasive, what are the side effect of the test, and the success rate of the test.


Celentano, D. D., & Szklo, M. (2019). Gordis epidemiology (6th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier. ISBN-13: 9780323552295

Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2016). Tuberculosis. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/tb/publications/factsheets/tes…

Heale, R., & Twycross, A. (2015). Validity and reliability in quantitative studies. Evidence-Based Nursing, 18(3), 66-67. Doi: 10.1136/eb-2015-102129

Respond to the bold paragraph ABOVE by using one of the option below… in APA format with At least two references and a minimum of 200 words….. .(The List of References should not be older than 2016 and should not be included in the word count.)

  • Ask a probing question.
  • Share an insight from having read your colleague’s posting.
  • Offer and support an opinion.

  • Validate an idea with your own experience.
  • Make a suggestion.
  • Expand on your colleague’s posting.

Be sure to support your postings and responses with specific references to the Learning Resources.

It is important that you cover all the topics identified in the assignment. Covering the topic does not mean mentioning the topic BUT presenting an explanation from the context of ethics and the readings for this class

To get maximum points you need to follow the requirements listed for this assignments 1) look at the word/page limits 2) review and follow APA rules 3) create subheadings to identify the key sections you are presenting and 4) Free from typographical and sentence construction errors.


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