write 2 paragraphs and 3responses

write 2 paragraphs and 3responses.

Can you help me understand this English question?

  • Martin Luther King, Jr., “Letter from Birmingham Jail
  • David and Jack Cahn, “Equality For All: Freedom is Nonnegotiable”

write two substantial paragraphs, as follows:

In one paragraph:
–Discuss one portion of King’s letter that you find particularly important or powerful. What is his overall point in this portion of the text? What is he doing in this section that intrigues you? What rhetorical strategies does he use to support his point in this section (e.g., word choice, use of imagery or metaphor, etc.). Identify the appeal created by each strategy (i.e., the appeal to ethos, pathos, and logos).

In a second paragraph:
–Make a connection to one section of Cahn and Cahn’s chapter where the authors make a point about millennial perspectives on equality. What differences do you see between contemporary views and those of King’s time? What ideas are consistent with King’s?

write a reply or make a comment on those three discussions

Student 1

In response to white pastors’ doubts about the need for direct action, King proposes the concept of “nonviolent tension”. He believes that people should avoid violent tension, but people must experience “a type of constructive, nonviolent tension” (King par. 10). In nonviolent movements, tension is often what people try to avoid because it seems to exacerbate the hostile relationship between the two sides. However, King sublimates the meaning of tension in nonviolent movement by comparing the tension created by non-violent direct action as “a tension in the mind” proposed by Socrates to strengthen the mind (King par. 10). The fundamental purpose of non-violent direct action is to expose the crisis hidden in peace, thereby opening the way for negotiations for the African American community. He also uses inflammatory words such as “our beloved Southland,” “tragic effort,” and “monologue” to portray the tragic experiences of African-Americans living in the South. In this part, King combines the appeal to logos and pathos. He proves to readers the need to create tension for racial issues by comparison and elicits sympathy from readers through emotional narratives.

In Cahn and Cahn’s chapter, “#BlackLivesMatter and Police Violence,” they discuss millennials’ aversion to racism and their strives for equality. For millennials, equality represents the neglect of skin tones. They also believe that people should not believe that it is a “post-racial society,” because cultural differences between different races have further increased racial tension (Cahn and Cahn 231). Both millennials and King believe that non-violent direct action is an important way to advance change. When these young people realized the divide created by racism, they chose to hold rallies and parades across the country. However, contemporary perceptions of the leader and scope of racial equality are different from King’s views. Millennials believe that white people should have primary responsibility for advocating for equality. When King hopes to create channels of communication by creating tension, contemporary people pay more attention to the initiative of mainstream social groups. Moreover, contemporary people believe that racism is not concentrated in one area. During King’s time, African-Americans living in the South experienced more severe racial discrimination. It is now believed that racism is splitting every region of the United States.

Student 2

One of the most powerful sections of Dr. Martin Luther King Junior’s “Letter from Birmingham Jail” is the twelfth paragraph in which he argues that African Americans can no longer wait for society to bring them justice and have to fight for freedom and justice because they have already endured many years of racial injustice waiting for justice and freedom that has been denied to them, and history has shown that oppressed people have to fight for their freedom because oppressors do not give it to them willingly. To support his point, King uses anaphora, imagery, and second person point of view in this paragraph to illustrate what life is like under racial discrimination for African Americans. These things that they have suffered and endured make it difficult for them to continue waiting for justice that has not come. The imagery, anaphora, metaphors, and use of second person point of view establish an appeal to pathos. The second person point of view helps place the audience into African Americans’ shoes and makes it more personal and easier for audience of all racial backgrounds to imagine their struggles than using third person. Imagery and anaphora emphasize and repeat images that makes the audience feel sympathy for African Americans, such as the image of a “tears welling up” in the eyes of a six-year-old (King 2). Kings vivid imagery and descriptions and effective appeal to pathos made this section of his letter really intriguing and impactful for me.

In one section of the “Equality For All: Freedom is Nonnegotiable” chapter of their book “When Millennials Rule: The Reshaping of America,” David and Jack Cahn assert that millennials believe that “’equality for all’ means that we do not judge others based on the color of their skin” and that racial discrimination and injustice is still a problem that occurs for African Americans (especially in the justice system) due to society’s misunderstanding of African Americans, a misconception that racial discrimination is no longer an issue, and a lack of cultural integration and interaction. They also assert that ways to combat this racial injustice is advocate for equality especially within the justice system (Cahn & Cahn 231). Both contemporary views and King agree that racial discrimination and segregation are unjust and should be fought for through direct action especially within the justice system. Moreover, they both agree that some people misunderstand African Americans and do not recognize that segregation is a problem that needs to be acted upon. However, these contemporary views differ with King’s in that they see racial injustice and discrimination as an ongoing problem that still needs to be combated and addressed even though there has been significant progress in terms of society’s attitude toward racial discrimination and laws passed to address this issue. People in contemporary society misunderstand that racism is a problem because it has already been addressed legally and society is generally more widely tolerant towards people of all races. King saw racial discrimination and injustice as a problem that had been largely unaddressed and unrecognized by the white community and the justice system. People in King’s time misunderstood and disagreed with the methods that the African American used to attempt to combat racism and advocate for change. They also discouraged African Americans from acting and told them to wait for change. Moreover, while contemporary society (particularly millenials) call for cultural integration and understanding from “people of all races” (Cahn & Cahn 232) to combat racial injustice, King advocated for understanding and legal action from the white community specifically to combat racial injustice.

Student 2

On page 2 for the very last paragraph, there is a powerful moment where the reader can view the perspective of the oppressed and segregated people, the African Americans. This paragraph is where King lists the depressing experiences of African Americans in the form of personal and emotional anecdotes. The way MLK shows his audience these experiences is by describing an image of a colored man being beaten up, for no reason with much anger, which appeals to the audience’s emotions. By showing that brutal injustices still happen, and happens in multitudes, it can bring awareness to his audience (especially those that stand by and do nothing). This section really intrigued me, because MLK lists these altercations and repeats these instances of everyday discrimination to create a tone of pent up frustration.

The last paragraph of the subsection titled “#BlackLivesMatter and Police Violence” has a quote from Jenna Wong that is relevant to King’s ideas of desegregating the church. Wong indicates that the school systems need more integration from all races in order to bring more awareness and knowledge of other cultures. MLK similarly commended those pastors who have already opened their doors to African American people, and commends anyone who opens doors for his people. Even though in the present time, we have “stamped out” segregation by allowing access, just like in MLK’s time, there are still loop holes in our present system to prevent integration and the sharing of knowledge. Just as segregation was made illegal, yet places still refused to let African Americans in their buildings, today many Americans still hold racist ideologies and notions while many still believe we’re already in a “Post-racial society”.

write 2 paragraphs and 3responses

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